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In this article we will provide you a thesis report on Whittmore-Petrenko Proving ring or simply proving ring. In this project on proving ring we will provide you background history on proving ring, types of rings, materials required, design, construction and working of  Proving ring. The project covers Strength of materi

als among various other subjects of mechanical engineering.

Abstract

Proving ring is a force transducer concept designed, analyzed and developed to be used in laboratory experiments to measure forces. The elastic behavior of the proving ring was analyzed using Castigliano’s second theorem and the results were found to be about 1% accurate.

The proving ring is a metal ring equipped with means of measuring deflection when under load. The concept of proving ring was created originally by Whittmore and Petrenko at the US National Bureau of standards.

Introduction

Force transducers are commonly used in engineering applications like weighing scales, verification of material testing machine, thrust measurement etc. Ring shaped transducers provide an ease in manufacturing and are widely used for the measurement of force.

The proving ring is a elastic metal ring with a means of measuring deflection when it is under load. It is used to measure force. The ring is currently used in laboratory exercises and in research projects in fluid mechanics.

solar panel-photovoltaic-cells-3

 Low cost silicon Production: cost effective solar panels

Compared to the current standard, a new method of producing solar cells could reduce the amount of silicon per unit area by upto 90 percent. This would help the manufacturers to produce solar modules, reducing the cost of solar power. One thing to ponder here is that pure silicone is expensive to get. This processing technique allows making solar cells from silicon that is 1000 times less pure, than the present industry standards

The solar cells are composed of the silicon fibres coated with glass. A glass tube of diameter 30 mm is inserted by a core of silicon. The tube filled with silicone is then stretched out into thin glass fibres. This is also a widely accepted industrial method used to produce fibre optic cables. Though this was for the first time silicone core fibres are made this way. Researchers at the Department of Physics at NTNU, working with the collaborators at Clemson University in the USA has done this and we appreciate them for doing such job. This would certainly help the manufacturers and the common people using solar panel at reduced rate but with higher efficiency.

Lower power consumption

This production process also enabled to solve old problem. Traditional solar cell required pure silicon. It was laborious, energy intensive and expensive to form pure silicone wafers. “We can use relatively dirty silicon, and the purification occurs naturally as part of the process of melting and re-solidifying in fibre form”, says Gibson (Researcher). “This means that you save energy, and eliminate several steps in production.” It roughly takes one third of the energy used previously to produce solar cells.

Gibson has worked for many years to combine purification and solar cell production. She got the idea and inspiration for the project after reading an article on silicon core fibers by John Ballato at Clemson University in South Carolina, who is at the forefront of research in fibre optics materials development. Hope that you guys would get the idea too in the say way and accomplish new task better than the current method. you can read here how solar cell works

The new approach

Silicon rods, a new types of solar cells for solar module are based on the vertical rods radial junction design. The design uses less pure silicon. The crash course for the inner working of solar cell is – photons of light have different energy associated with them which is directly proportional to the frequency or inversely to the wavelength of light.

The layers of silicon wafers absorb different photons which are tuned in with them. They generate free charges, charge carriers holes and electrons in case of semiconductors. Which are then separated to provide electrical energy. These electrical charges must be close to the p-n junction to be captured. If the charge is not captured then the energy dissipates in the form of heat, heating up the solar cell too. The journey where charge is generated to harness was long in traditional solar cells and also requiring pure silicon. But silicon fibre junctions are provided all the way around the fibre. That means if a charge is created by a point then it is captured there itself with the help of the fibres, even if they are impure.

 Potential 

Contemporary commercial solar cells have maximum efficiency of upto 21%. The power output is not very high by the prototype model. It is 3.6 percent only.  The commercialization of this would take some time to be effective.  But for now, research is in progress to make that happen soon.  The researchers have faith and believe that they would increase the efficiency to a larger extent which can be done with proper fabrication and improved design. It is not fair to compare their cells with the modern solar cells which took around 40 years to establish to the current level. This was for the first time when someone made the cells this way which is worth appreciating. We all wish those best wishes to succeed and bring us a new revolution in the arena. Its interesting to see how solar cell have evolved with time See the timeline of solar cells.

  We hope this article would be helpful to you. In case you have any query regarding the article or want to know some technicalities, please don’t hesitate to ask. We would love to reply you to the most possible way we can. Stay tuned with us for other Project Ideas and Engineering Projects.

 wind-farm-project

Wind Energy and Wind Farm Study

The trend for the use of renewable sources of energy is growing a lightning fast speed. The main reason is that most of the government all over the world is focusing on the renewable sources of energy. The main reason, scarcity of non-renewable source and fast depletion of the sources. Soon, such sources would end. So emphasis paid upon the abundant energy which is still not harvested. One of the source is WIND ENERY, we have it everywhere but not harnessed fully.  The easiest method to convert wind energy is using rotors which utilize momentum of wind and coverts energy into rotational form. That form is then transmitted to generators which are a configuration of magnets and electronics. The end product is the electrical energy which could then be saved into reservoirs like the batteries for the use.  This is better alternative that the fossil fuel more petroleum energy. Though, various factors and variables are involved in wind power generation.

 The study of wind energy and its harnessed is studied in two parts. In the first part factors like Betz limit, the classification of wind turbines with its components, power curves of wind turbines are studied. The wind farm is called Es Milà which is located in an island- Minorca, in Spain.

A wind farm or a wind part is a collection or group of the Wind Turbines in the same area to produce Energy. A large wind farm or wind park may consist hundreds of individual turbines over an extended area sometimes that area could go up to 100s of square miles. Additional benefit is that the area in between can be used for farming too.The optimal area is offshore.

While studying in the first phase – a description of the wind farm in terms of energy , and electricity produced is made. With the meteorological and power data and its performance is studied. In the study, some meteorological aspects viz. wind direction, wind velocity and its distribution are discussed.

After the first phase, the study focuses on electricity production via wind farms  is involved. The other parameter is important is that the comparison between the actual and expected power generation is incorporated.

With the above articles we hope that you have got a brief idea how power generation is studied and followed. We would be happy if you comment below in this context. Any query would be heard and replied. Stay connected with MAG for other technical knowledge and projects in various fields.

Hope You would take some idea from the article for your engineering Major/Minor projects. If you have any query related to the article, can ask by commenting below.We would appreciate that.

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bionic bird project for engineers

Bionic Bird Project for Engineering Students

Hello friends, your Engineer buddy, have brought you a new project idea for your engineering projects. Today’s idea is world’s first furtive civilian drone. It’s a bionic bird.

The unique characteristic of this bionic bird is that it flies not with the rotating wings like in helicopter drones but uses its wings like a bird in up and down motion to fly. The most interesting is it can fly in a group of the real bird without even making them realize that it’s unreal. This bionic bird like drone is shown attracting other bird and predators.

Following is the demonstration:-

 Construction and working

The bird’s body is constructed with high quality wear resistance foam. The wings are made of the carbon fibres for weight reduction and increased durability. It is incorporated with a Bluetooth 4.0 for communication via smartphone. Soon it would be controlled with an android application too.

There is an on board battery which allows it fly for around 8 to 10 minutes and took 12 min to charge with the egg shaped charger. Presently it does not have too much practical applications but later version would have improvements such as inbuilt HD camera with live streaming, control with a wrist band, and hovering ability like a humming bird. This drone can be operated within a range of 100 meters.

Following is the video showing its internal gear system. The video represented  rotatory motion conversion to reciprocatory motion in  bionic bird.

It is sort of a good toy to play around for some time.

Hope you liked this article and you really loved the concept than don’t forget to share with your friends and amaze them with the bot.

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drone ambulance project

Hello folks, today I have brought a new application of flying copter over the conventional ways. When an ‘Engineering Student’ does something innovative in his/her field that fascinates me and motivates too to inspire others in doing so. The latest innovation is a ‘drone ambulance’ created by Alec Momont, an engineering student from Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands.

The time taken to receive a person with severe cardiac arrest is often a deciding factor between the life and death. If the person is untrained then it became tricky to operate public defibrillators. He decipher the situation and came out with an idea of removing this difficulty by constructing a drone specifically for the scenario.

He proposed the solution by making an ambulance drone, carrying a defibrillator to the patient deployed within fraction of time before the emergency services to arrive.

How does it work?

In case, a patient has a cardiac arrest and makes an emergency call, the ambulance drone tracks the call location using an inbuilt GPS for navigation and fly with a speed of 100km per hour. An operator operates it and helps like a paramedic, gives instruction to someone nearby on how to use the defibrillator to treat the patient. An inbuilt camera is incorporated that allows the operator ensuring the defibrillator is being used correctly.

The ambulance drone is six winged copter that can travel to a location within 12 square km in a minute. According to the maker, it increases patient’s probability of survival ten times when met with cardiac arrest.

The design prototype is developed with the frame made of carbon composites. The structure is light weight capable of carrying itself with the requiring tools. It would replace the conventional medical toolbox that weights around 3 to 5 kg. Also the inbuilt loudspeaker helps reducing the caused due to the situation while helping the person in need.

In a press release, currently 20 percent untrained people are able to successfully apply the defibrillator. This rate though can be increased upto 90 percent if people are provided with the instructions at the incidence.

The ambulance drone is in progress for increasing efficient and ability to avoid obstacles mid-flight. We all hope that it would take the sky and save many lives in future.

­­ Ambulance Drone over car ambulance is better because

  • An average ambulance takes around 30 min to reach the patient
  • There are possibilities of trapping into traffic situations too.
  • Sometimes to navigate person is not an easy task.
  • The key to win the death and life combat is to be quick; ambulance drone increases the winning possibilities for that.
  • Effectiveness diminishes by 10 percent for every minute that passes by before the implication of the defibrillation.

I hope that this article would be helpful you in engineering project ideas. We are the engineers and that’s the prestige. We help people in innovating what they need, making their life easier. I insist you to invent something like this.

In case you have any query or technical help related to the article, do ask. I would be grateful hearing from you. If you like the article do comment, share via Facebook, Twitter, Google +, etc.

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 We are always fascinated with the objects that fly in sky. We have the intrinsic desire to fly like a bird, hovhendo hoveboard, magnetic levitationer like a bug and love adventure related to sky. The researchers have created a hover board which is a combination of a skate board and hover craft. It levitates above ground. A Japanese technology team also demonstrated ultrasonic levitation working in three dimensions.

This is the technology which you normally would see in the science-fiction movies. With this technology, hovering car and trains could revolutionize the world and add a new way to transportation. They called the hoverboard a hendo, a special skateboard. The nonferrous material let Hendo to hover and is conductive in nature. We all know magnetism from childhood that like poles attracts and unlike repels. It is the old known concept behind the technology.

The board has disc shaped motors acting as four engines that create a magnetic field which react with the non-ferrous conductive material producing the secondary magnetic fields. Each field repels the other, allowing the board to hover above the ground. The hovercraft uses magnetic field architecture and only reacts to certain materials such as copper and aluminum. The blue light adds to the aesthetics. The working of the Hendo is quieter. Tough part while making the project was with the balancing, described by Earns haw’s theorem. The theorem state: that it’s utterly tough to balance magnets when they are repelling.

The magnetic hovercraft was restricted in a track for equilibrium. The device is capable of weighing upto 136 kg hovering few cm. above the ground. The Hendo only float above the ground or park made for hovercraft. It cannot float above the water. They are working to get some more advancement with the major goal to levitate the house. Presently 50,000 kilogram train is already running on track like the hover train, Levi train. The cost of such board is $10,000.

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solar energy power generation parameters

The efficiency of the solar power module is not very high as what is required for commercial purposes. It became crucial to make use of every bit of sunlight to the most possible way. Various researches are in progress for increasing the efficiency and got success, though it would take time to be practical commercially. By now we can take some measures at our levels to harness solar energy more at own level with the current solar panels. In this article we would cover solar installation process and tilt angle considerations.

 Installation parameters that affect solar array efficiency:-

Panel Orientation

In most of the countries, the roof ideally should face south direction to get the maximum sunshine throughout the year, but a quality design can often compensate for other directions.

Roof and Panel Pitch

The “pitch” or vertical tilt of roof can affect the number of hours of sunlight you receive in an average day all the year round. Large commercial systems have incorporated with solar tracking systems that automatically follow the sun’s tilt through the day. Though these are expensive, and not typically used for residential solar modules.

Temperature

Some solar modules like it hot but most don’t. So, panels typically need to be installed a few inches above the roof having enough air circulation to cool them down. Some photovoltaic panels are designed such a way that makes them more efficient in energy conversions in hotter climates.

Shade 

Shade is the enemy of solar power production. With bad solar design, even a little shade on one panel can shut down energy conversion on all of other panels (like a bad bulb in a string of Christmas lights which is also called as Christmas effect). Before designing a system for home, technicians conduct a detailed shading analysis of the roof to reveal its patterns of shade and sunlight throughout the year. Then the local installation partner conducts another detailed analysis to verify the findings from the first decipher.

Perfect Tilting ‘Angle’ For Solar Panel

To get the most efficiency out of the solar panel when installing the solar module is very important, that we have already discussed. We know now all the parameters but we still not know what is the angle at which it must be kept to get optimum sunshine. Further we will discuss the angle of the panel.

  • The first quick and easy way- know your latitude and subtract 15deg. from it for winter season while add the same for summer. Let’s take an example, suppose your latitude is 35 degree, the angle you should tilt your panel in the winter is 35+15= 50 degree and during summer it would be 20 degree.
  • Now the improved and accurate than the previous method for winter: – the winter days are very short and winter does not last for many months of the year for most of the year. Multiply the latitude by 0.9 and add 29 deg to get the angle of panel in winter. Let’s say if the angle of latitude is 40 deg then for winter 40* 0.9 +29 is equal to 65 degree.
  •  For summer, multiply the latitude with 0.9 and subtract it with 23.5
  • For spring and fall season to get the optimum result just subtract the latitude with 2.5.

In the pioneer’s festival in Vienna, the most advanced flying car was unveiled by the Slovakia based company, aeromobil. The aeromobil 3.0 is the name of their prototype. It has accommodations for two passenger and has length of the limousine. The car make you feel like the luxury sedan. The amazing feature of the car, which makes it advanced, is that it can transform from car to airplane within few minutes and reminds us like a transformer from the film- Transformers. The speed of the vehicle in car form is upto 160km per hour and 200km per hour as a flying aircraft.

Front view makes it look like a car whereas back view makes feel like a private jet.  The aeromobil 3.0 requires 250metres of open field, pavement or grassland to take off and 50metre space to land. When one feel it to fly, just a touch of a button ,it opens its wings like from the side automatically an a large  becomes a small flying plane. It can be kept at home garage just like a car when we are done with the flying.

The company says if one need to buy the car, they must possess the pilot’s license, which is fair enough. We certainly don’t want someone to crash it onto or roofs. Presently only trained pilots are permitted to test the aeromobil 3.0.

Specifications (AeroMobil 3.0), Data from the  Manufacturer

General characteristics

Crew: two

Capacity: two passengers

Wingspan: 8.32 m (27 ft. 4 inch) wings extended

Width: 2.24 m (7 ft. 4 inch) wings folded

Empty weight: 600 kg

Power plant: 1 × Rotax 912 four cylinder horizontally-opposed liquid and air-cooled piston aircraft engine, 75 kW (100 hp)

Performance

Maximum speed: 200 km/h (124 mph; 108 kn) maximum road speed: 160 km/h (99 mph)

Stall speed: 60 km/h (37 mph; 32 kn)

Range: 700 km (435 mi; 378 nmi) Road range: 500 km (310 mi)

Driving fuel consumption: 7.5 l/100 km (31.4 mpg-US; 37.7 mpg-imp)

Flight fuel consumption: 15 l (4.0 US gal; 3.3 imp gal) /hour

aeroMOBIL 3.0
aeroMOBIL 3.O

 

 

aeroMOBIL 3.0
aeroMOBIL 3.0

 

 

aeroMOBIL 3.0
aeroMOBIL 3.0

 

 

aeroMOBIL 3.0
aeroMOBIL 3.0

 working or photo voltaic cell

Project Idea: solar energy Photo Voltaic Cell

Apart from researches, solar energy is the best source available to us as an alternate source of energy. Various researches suggest that a 1.5 kilovolt PV system would keep around 110,000 pound co2 out of our atmosphere. This much electricity is produced by burning 60,000 pounds of coal. If we somehow do this the atmosphere would be free from pollution and greenhouse effect.

Think just that if we somehow manage to utilize the solar energy. We go outside to the sunny day and take the amount energy we want and then get back to work. The technology which is developed and using so far is the use of photo voltaic cell. Which is very elegant yet sophisticated?

Theory for photovoltaic module

Light from the sun consists of photons and each photon is associated with energy with them equivalent to have. As explained by the Maxwell Planck law

PV uses that to and converts it into electricity. The majority of the module use wafer of crystalline silicon and cadmium telluride. The load carrying or structural can be the front or the back layer. The cell membrane must be protected from any kind of physical and chemical damage caused by the moisture and other chemicals. Most solar modules are rigid but semi flexible is also available which depends on thin film of cells. In order to get continuous flow of current, electrical connections are made in series or in parallel for the desired voltage. The current carrying conductive wire that take off the current from the solar module can have silver, copper, or other non- magnetic transition metal.

To connect externally popular connectors are available like MC3 or MC4, to make sure easy weather proof connection to the rest of the system.  Some of the recent solar module designs include lenses and mirrors as concentrators on the array of smaller cells, maximizing thus the output current per square meter. The gallium arsenide thus becomes cost effective. So by now we are quite familiar with the construction of the PV but what about the efficiency?

 How much is PV efficient?   

Well, currently the best achieved by PV is around 21.5% in new commercial products.  The most efficient solar module have the power density of upto 175 w/m^2. The main reason is, most of the solar module does not cover the whole range of sunlight which includes – ultraviolet, infrared, and low diffused light. However when the monochromatic light is incident on the particular cell which is tuned in with the falling light frequency may provide higher efficiency. With this idea new PV is designed with a light splitter and panel of different cells. The sunlight falls on the splitter (kind of a prism), light deviates according to their respective frequencies on the tuned cells. This system has been projected to be capable of raising the efficiency to 50%. Now that’s something amazing, right?

The researchers of London Imperial college has shown too, that efficiency can be improved more by studding the light receiving semiconductor surface with the aluminum nano-cylinders. The science behind this is simple. The scattered light by doing so travels longer path and more photons are trapped by the semiconductors hence more electricity conversion. Previously instead of aluminum, silver and gold were used by that was not cost effective.

There is one more terminology here – ‘Micro inverted’ solar panel. These coverts the DC(Direct Current) generated by the solar panel to  Ac(Alternating current).The output from several inverters sometimes fed to electrical grid. Micro inverter works completely independent so each panel contributes its maximum possible output with the available sunlight. These are wired in parallel than the normal panel which is wired in series.  The output is determined with that arrangement is determined by the lowest panel and this is called the “Christmas Light Effect”

Types of solar modules

energy-solar-panels
crystalline energy-solar-panels

Crystalline silicon modules – Two years back, crystalline silicon accounted for more than ninety percent Photo-voltaic worldwide. Which shows most of the solar modules are manufactured of the solar cells made of the poly-crystalline and mono-crystalline silicon.

Thin-Film-Solar-Modules
Thin-Film-Solar-Modules

Thin Film Modules – The third generation or 3g solar module comes with advanced thin –film cell. They produce relatively higher efficiency conversion compared to other solar technologies with low cost. Thanks to Jacob S. Gibbs and Brinsley Coleberd for developing such technologies.

Rigid thin-film modules –The cell and the module are manufactured in the same production line. On a glass substrate or superstrate the cell is created with the proper positions. The process is called “monolithic integration”. The substrate or superstrate is then perfectly packed from front and back with another sheet of the glass. The main cell technologies in rigid thin film category are CdTe, or a-Si, or a-Si+uc-Si tandem,or CIGS (or variant). Amorphous silicon has a sunlight conversion rate between 6-12%.

solar panel-photovoltaic- rigid
solar panel-photovoltaic- rigid

 

Flexible thin-film modules – The flexible thin film modules are also produced in the same production line like the rigid thin film module by depositing the necessary photo active layers on the flexible substrate. For polyester or polyimide film monolithic integration can be

flexible solar cell module
flexible solar cell module

incorporated as these are insulator in nature. On the other hand if the substrate is conductor then the electrical connection is made with the necessary technique.  The cells are fabricated into modules by laminating them to a transparent colorless fluoro polymer on the front side. Suitable polymer for bonding is incorporated on the other side of the module.  Presently only amorphous silicon triple junction is available for the flexible module.

The main advantage of flexible thin film solar modules is that they can be used as a portable device for energy. They are very resistance to breakage unlike regular crystalline cells. They can though be broken by bending them into a sharp angle. They are also lighter than the rigid standard solar panels per square foot. It is expected that by 2019 flexible thin film PV market experience a CAGR of over 35%.

Smart solar modules –  last but not the least is the smart solar module. Many companies have initiated embedding electronics into photovoltaic modules. This ensures maximum power point tracking (MPPT) per module individually. The fault can be detected and monitoring is possible at module level in this.  To optimize the solar power harvest, technology like DC to DC power conversion is used which

smart solar panel
smart solar panel

are also called as power optimizer. Such electronic technology ensures shading effect, which means that when light falls on some part of the panel but shades on the other part due to hindrance on the path of the light then one part shows the zero output current but other does not. This is corrected by using such electronics technology, where the entire module falls to zero in that case.

 So this was all about Photo-voltaics. I hope this idea would be helpful in making your Engineering projects. Its your time to think something related to this, add some technical possibilities to make it yours and help researchers. In case you have any query regarding the article or want to know some more technicalities, please don’t hesitate to ask. We would love to reply you to the most possible way we can. Stay tuned with us for other Project Ideas and Engineering Projects.

Hey ya, all science buddies, did you ever get curious in your life, and how if we could use the heat energy produced in many ways and uses it for generating electricity. If yes, you are not alone. In automobiles and factories most of the energy wastes as heat. Other heat sources are burnt fossil fuels and sun. So if we somehow convert that into useful energy, would be a great idea in fulfilling the demands of the human beings to some extent. The energy need is increasing day after day, we all hears it. But the sources are not. Hence it becomes critically important to find alternate sources or convert the unharnessed energy into useful energy.

Today, in this article I have explained and let all my readers know that it is possible for the conversion of heat energy into electrical energy. The main advantage with electric energy is that it can be used in no of ways to get our work done and can be stored into electrical reservoirs. Not many people have heard of thermionic generators right? But not to worry here we are, enlightening you with some details of it and uses.

Well, thermionic generators as the name symbolizes – are the materials which uses thermal energy or temperature difference between a hot and a cold metallic plate to create electricity. “Electrons are evaporated or kicked out by light from the hot plate, then driven to the cold plate, where they condense, explained experimental solid-state physicist Jochen Mannhart of Germany. The resulting charge difference between those plates thus produces a voltage, hence an electrical current without moving the mechanical parts.

The former model of thermionic generators failed because of the ‘charge space problem’. In that model the clouds formed at the hot plate of the electrons which repelled the other electrons backwards because of the negative charge at the plate. That was the main reason for the ineffective functioning of the model. The problem then sorted out by the students of Stanford University by using an electric field to full the charge cloud away from the hot plate thus, enabling the electrons to make way to the old plate, making the flow of current. Development of thermionic devices

At this point it is crucial to know that how much current is formed by this method. Well, practical thermionic generators have reached an efficiency of about 10 percent which means that ten percent of the heat energy is converted by this technology which is not very much but something is better than nothing that we all know. Theoretical prediction of the thermo electronic generators suggests about 40 percent energy conversion.  Though, we would be much surprised if there was a commercial application in the market place within the next 5-6 years, but if companies that are hungry for power recognize via thermionic generators, the development might be faster. It is amazing to know How space charge problem was solved with Thermionic devices

 So this was all about thermionic generators. I hope this idea would be helpful in making your Engineering projects. You now think something related to this, add some technical possibilities to make it yours and help researchers achieve that early. In case you have any query regarding the article or want to know some more technicalities, please don’t hesitate to ask. We would love to reply you to the most possible way we can. Stay tuned with us for other Project Ideas and Engineering Projects.